Cazador-Xebec Occre 1:60 by Paul V

paulv1958

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#1
HI this is my first log with SOS, Hope you enjoy the build of the Occre Cazador or Xebec.

A xebec (/ˈziːbɛk/ or /zᵻˈbɛk/), also spelled zebec, was a Mediterranean sailing ship that was used mostly for trading. It would have a long overhanging bowsprit and aft-set mizzen mast. The term can also refer to a small, fast vessel of the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries, used almost exclusively in the Mediterranean Sea.
Xebecs were similar to galleys used by Algerian corsairs and Barbary pirates having both lateen sails and oars for propulsion. Early xebecs had two masts; later ones three. Xebecs featured a distinctive hull with pronounced overhanging bow and stern,[1] and rarely displaced more than 200 tons, making them slightly smaller and with slightly fewer guns than frigates of the period.

Some victorious xebecs of the Spanish Navy, about 1770

Andaluz, 30 guns (4 x 8 pounders)
Africa, 18 guns (4 pounders)
Atrevido, 20 guns
Aventurero, 30 guns (3 x 8 pounders)
Murciano, 16 guns, 4 pedreros (light rotary guns)
San Antonio

Notable xebecs of the French Navy include four launched in 1750:

Ruse, 160 tons, 18 guns
Serpent, 160 tons burthen, 18 guns
Requin, 260 tons burthen, 24 guns
Indiscret, 260 tons burthen, 24 guns

In the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, a large polacre-xebec carried a square rig on the foremast, lateen sails on the other masts, a bowsprit, and two headsails. The square sail distinguished this form of a xebec from that of a felucca which is equipped solely with lateen sails. The last of the xebecs in use by European navies were fully square-rigged and were termed xebec-frigates.

The British brig-sloop Speedy's (14 guns, 54 men) defeat of the Spanish xebec-frigate El Gamo (32 guns, 319 men) on 6 May 1801 is generally regarded as one of the most remarkable single-ship actions in naval history. It was the foundation of the legendary reputation of the Speedy's commander, Lord Cochrane (later known as the "Sea Wolf" and Admiral Thomas Cochrane, 10th Earl of Dundonald, GCB), which has in turn inspired fictional accounts in sea fiction, like Patrick O'Brian's Master and Commander

Sea-going Mediterranean peoples greatly favoured xebecs as corsairs. The corsairs built their xebecs with a narrow floor to achieve a higher speed than their victims, but with a considerable beam in order to enable them to carry an extensive sail-plan. The lateen rig of the xebec allowed the ship to sail close hauled to the wind, something that often give it an advantage in pursuit or escape. The use of oars or sweeps allowed the xebec to approach vessels who were becalmed. When used as corsairs, the xebecs carried a crew of 300 to 400 men and mounted perhaps 16 to 40 guns according to size. In peacetime operations, the xebec could transport merchandise.

The Spanish jabeque had only lateen sails, as portrayed in the Cazador. The Spanish Crown built Cazador in the mid-eighteenth century to fight Algerian corsairs (privateers) in the Mediterranean. Algerian corsairs also used three-lateen-sail xebecs in their raids on Mediterranean trade.

Occre Kit Model

The 1:60 scale model has an overall length of 860 mms, a 160 mms beam and is 640 mms to the top of the main yard.

I was lucky to purchase this Kit 2 years ago a a bargain price of $299

Anyway here is the obligatory Contents photos. ( not this is not Laser cur nor CNC but appears to be Die cut for the main wood parts.)

The false keel * bulkheads are a very lightweight ( and pre glued breakable )3 ply. The rest of the wood is quite good and the fittings are metal or brass. The cannon supports are metal, however I will paint them and see how we go.

The Kit box

Contents







False Keel & bulkheads ready for dryfit



All fitted very nicely with no sanding req,





Now to glue her up

See you soon.
 

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paulv1958

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#2
After an overnight dry the bulk heads are all fitted and glued. Next up the main deck.

The deck has a very pronounced convex shape with an upward sweep tot he bow. Fitting was quite easy and required no adjustments or sanding. The only difficulty was hold the deck in shape whilst adding the pins to hold the shape and glue.

The instructions suggested using the supplied brass nails (pins) for holding the deck and then filing them smooth with the deck after it dries. ( Yeh sure, not gunna happen). Due to the nature of the ply ( close inspection shows it is a balsa like wood with laminated ply surface) the nails just pulled out under the stress of the deck shaping. Map pins no issue and the flat pin surface held the deck in place. As they do not stick to PVA they pull out easily afterwards.

Glued and ready for decking


The deck is added and pinned in place.


PIns removed. Note the curve of the deck. ( sleek)
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Next the rear wall was to be planked. ( The same wood is used for the decking. its 1 x 3 Ramin. This is different in width and thickness ti the stuff supplied with AL kits which is .5 x 4mm. )
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The decking strips are nice and clean and finished off. I have decided to go with a 3 butt shift at 9cm ( = 18ft planks at 1:60). The reasoning for this was the deck gratings & mast hols are 6cm apart. With a 3 butt shift of 3/6/9 and an overall deck length of 39cm it all fits nicely. 18ft also seems a reasonable length for the planks.

The kit suggests applying the deck planing next, but I have skipped ahead and added the lower supports and will start to shape them before I add the decking to avoid accidents.

Supports added
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I will be back with the planking.

paulv
 

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Donnie

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#3
Very nice start and a very nice array of parts. I like the way OcCre provides the rigging line on a tube. Other manufactures should do the same instead of using a flat cardboard or flat plastic which indents the line.

Donnie
 

paulv1958

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#4
Update

The

The deck has now been added to the main deck.
The inst called for the use of contact adhesive, however as I was not in a rush and to allow me move movement, I used good old PVA.
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All went well and after a light sanding and coating of water based sealer the desk came up very nice.


Next the rear deck was added. This was simpler than main, but has again a pronounced curve that need to be held in place whilst drying.


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Decking was added in the same manner as the main at 9cm lengths with a 3 butt pattern.


The next step called for the adding of supports for the bulwark. These consisted of using some 2 x 5 ramin ( lime wood). This is the same used for the hull planking.


The came the bulwark instructions. The inst called for the adding of .5mm ramin lining and then attach the bulwark.


1. The bulwark has to be curved at the rear and bent at the front. Whilst the bending should not be an issue ( it was) the curving is severe and the heat would have lead to issues.

Bulwark as supplied and ship shape.


Time to used the patented electric plank bender ( which works brilliantly)



Result


Next came the removal of all the cannon ports. ( Each is a actual part to be used later, so care must be taken and the parts bagged.


The bulwarks were then planked with .5 ramin again at a 9cm length and pencil edged. This time a 2 butt pattern was used.



Here is where the issue occurred. Dampening the wood and heat bending caused the lining to lift. Whilst not a huge issue, it was still a pain to re seat. Lesson learned, do all bending first.


The bulwarks were then lined up as per the inst and nailed and glued in place.



After drying the nails were removed ( despite Occre still recommending they be cut and filed.......)


The final result.


Now all I have to do is repeat for the other side !!!!! ( lining lesson learned)

See you soon Paul

Donnie the best thread I have used is Caldercraft or Jotika. followed by Amati.
 

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Donnie

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#7
Dampening the wood and heat bending caused the lining to lift
Ouch !!! Seems like you got a handle on it though. At least you are not like me and prying things apart and re gluing !!!

Donnie
 

paulv1958

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#8
Tks Gary. Yep stupid mistake. ( There is another one below but caught)

Tks Donnie, Panart kits are a challenge but, it would be boring if it was to easy....( HMMM)

Okay lesson learned, this time it was all smooth sailing.

Pre bend bulwarks !.

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Line and glue in place. ( Gee they fit nicely)

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Next add the upper deck Bulwarks ( Nice fit without only a little sanding at tabs. ( no bend req on these)

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Next was fill in for 4 false cannon ports with backing. ( it does not mention painting them black but....)

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The instructions then suggest applying the final rear veneer, I stupidly stated and then re checked the photos. Yep theY applied this first anD then the rest of the hull planking. In my mind this causes two issues ( and in there instruction photos and box art on close inspection).

1. The inner and outer hull planking become clearly visible as white & brown plank outlines at the rear of the ship and would req staining for even color and this in turn could leach to the rear and not be an exact match.

2. First sanding of the hull is liable to damage the veneer,

Solution stop where I was and apply after hull complete. This then applies a neat end cap
Whilst it may not be ship correct it is neat and clean looks, better, and suits me.

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Okay so that aside, it was time to start the hull planking.

Occre suggest adding the keel after planking and then cut 4mm gap to allow for keel.I decided to add keel and plank up to it. Although more care has to be done for the cutting and shaping of planks, This then allows a neater and closer fitting finish( which I need more practice for the Santa Ana..

One plank added only....

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The ship is now 750mm in length and growing.....

See you after some more planking.... ( I hope)
 

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paulv1958

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#10
Cheers Brian, we have PM'd in the past.
Is Ship society of Vic still going as there is b all info on the site.
Is there any clubs SE way ??

Will be nice to see your ZHL, is it the Le Requin1750 or the Misticque. I drool over the Le Requin,
 

Brian077

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#11
Hi Paul,

the ship modelling society of Victoria is still going strong and I was at the club meeting last night.

My model is the Le Requin full plank on frame kit 1-48 scale by ZHL.
 

Donnie

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#12
It is interesting to say the least how the kit designers 'suggest' doing something a certain way - that in reality doesn't make much sense. Ship building is definitely more than just step by step process. In my situation with the San Felipe, it is more like "take a step" and "take it apart" !
 

paulv1958

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#13
Let the planking begin!!

As I have the Santa Ana to do next, I figured now was a good time as any to play with planking techniques. I decided to cut planks at mid , Mid +1, Mid -1 bulkheads and shape and bend each. As Occre gave me plenty of planks to play with and a 2 mm thickness, some fun could be had.


NOTE: As per AL & Occre, there is never a mention of a Rabbet line. It became obvious that it was needed to ensure the correct thickness at the rear, bow and at the Gar-board planking. At 2mm the planks consume half the keel. Out with the Dremel and fixed.

For those who have not seen

http://www.boat-building.org/learn-skills/index.php/en/wood/cutting-the-rabbet-large-vessels/

The video on he site is worth a vewing.


The only thing I do not like about Occre is that the Keel is Walnut ply, not solid, so any sanding nicks show up. I will stain the keel walnut prior to the hull veneering to fix any marks.

Whilst taking longer the result did not need anywhere as much sanding.

A quick edge clean and general surface smoothing with the Dremel and a wipe down with damp rag revealed the small gaps and dents yet to be filled.

See you on the other side of planking, filling & sanding.

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Donnie

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#14
I see that you are using the tick marks on the Bulkheads. I need to learn how to do this. I have read about it in Donald Dressels book and other books, but for some reason, what they are trying to convey doesn't compute in my brain. I also need to try to cut my planking strips shorter in length like what you did.
Nice work.

Donnie
 

GemmaJF

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#15
Hi Donnie, not yet started my planking but read so many books and guides I can give you a start with the tick marks.

Written as someone who just figured it out for themselves..

Make a paper strip that follows the outline of the fattest bulkhead (usually near the middle of the hull)

Measure your plank width, calculate how many whole width planks will fit into the paper strip. It won 't be exact, add any leftover to the Garboard strake.

Now divide the paper strip up evenly by the number of whole width planks that will fit. (allowing for the Garboard at the bottom).

Then transfer the marks from the paper strip, back to the fattest bulkhead.

If you carry on with the other bulkheads the tick marks get closer, as the outline of each bulkhead gets shorter, this indicates a need to taper the planks. You can have a bunch of paper strips as a guide, some transfer it all to a table of measurements.

I think that is the basics, if people have more to add or corrections, feel free, trying to learn myself.
 

Donnie

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Thank you Gemma - very simple precise instructions. I think I got it now ! To add to this, is some folks use Spiling and Stealers of which can very tedious to do (in my opinion) , but I need to get the tick mark routine down first.
 

paulv1958

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#17
Hi Donny , what Gemma said

1. Take middle bulkhead and measure from top to bottom say 20cm
2. Then devide this by the width of you planks. say 5mm. The num should then be 200/5 = 40 planks or marks
3. Measure the mid fromt & rear bulkheads & then divide that by 40 and mark ( 150/40 = 3.75cm)
4. repeat for last bow / stern bulkhead ( 100/40 = 2.5) ( mark bulkheads)




( god help me if it was imperial feet / inches etc)

Okay so you now have a plank that is 5mm in the middle and 2.5 at each end. ( never happens) Mark and cut to shape, pre bend and it should just lay in position without any force or glue. Cut from upper edge ( or lower if the ship is upside down. The cut should lie against the previous plank.

When you let the planks just sit there they will lay straight, At the rear there will be wedges ( stealers to fill)]

At the front the theory is that the plank must not be less than half its original width. So if this happens you compensate by dropping a plank.
All the issues of plank clinkering go away and they all lie flatish and straight to the eye. ( also no spit lower upper.)

Does not fix dents, uneven plank with & thickness ( unless you are a bit anal with the thickness-er tools and table saws etc and like every plank perfect first).


Keep in mind that this is for the perfect planker and those who like Admiralty or Museum quality models
Yes it does require every plank to be shaped and pre fitted and despite all the effort of marking they are not the same due to natural rregularities ( Its wood). ( Does not fix plank angst)

Also this can be split into areas on the hull. Above the whales there is normally no need to do any shaping.
Its only where there are compound bends and changes in size. Most books suggest dividing the hull into sections top to bot and measure for each section. ie Above deck, above whales, below whales & waterline. Yep a lotta work. WORTH IT ?? I don t know yet as I haven't done enough planking. BY the time I get to that I will probably be sitting in the old folks home..

There are lots of books with lots of differing options. In the end its whats you feel comfortable with. Like I said, if you have the time play,

For double hull its no big issue as it gets covered up

for single planking..... arrrrgggg noo. ( reason for block fillers)


I cut the planks as its easier to manage small sections.

The same applies for the second layering, but you and draw the complete lines directly on hull and then lay the planks on this lines.

Theory over - reality ( black art - Voodo hoodoo - LOTS of practice & patience)
At my age and vision.... well... oneday... maybe...LOL ROLF etc :angry-cussingblack: :lol: :angry-banghead:
 

paulv1958

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#19
Hi all

The first layer of the hull is now complete. Playing with smaller planks has paid off big time. It was much easier to fit small pieces and very little sanding and filling was required.

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Prior to adding the second layer , I stained the keel where it had been scratch and sanded back.

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Also there was the job of completing the rear planing, which would no longer risk damage

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Next was to add the second layer. To give the effect of real-ish ( is there such a word) planking I arbitrarily chose 10m as the plank length and drew lines on he hull from the deck down to use as cut point. The lines are at 5cm to give the staggered look. The only pain is, as the hull gets smaller at the bottom, each plank has to be cut ,sized, shaped and added individually. ( its quite relaxing and time consuming, but that's what this is all about.)

The planks were glued in place using contact adhesive ( or cobblers glue), brushed on the hull and the planks and let to dry ( about 2 min). The planks where then just pressed into place ( easy) The glue leaves no marks on the wood at all.

The only downfall is you do this in a well ventilated place. Glue sniffer syndrome will occur and beaks must be taken ( I could not figure out why i was getting dizzy when I left the room ( then it dawned on me). The brushes easily cleaned up in Acetone.

Adding the planks( The pins did no go through the planks they where there to hold the edges together where slight bending was req.
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All done and keel cleaned up.

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Back when I fin the other side.
 

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GemmaJF

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#20
Fantastic progress Paul, the planking looks first class.

The trouble with contact adhesives is that though it is easy to notice the fumes at first, we get use to them while working. Doing this kind of work has us leaning right over the fumes for hours at a time. So not too long before we become totally smashed, get headaches and make mistakes. I used to have the same problem with model aircraft dope and cellulose sanding sealer. It is a bit of effort but I open a window and get a fan set up so there is some airflow away from the bench, I only take the adhesive I need immediately out of the pot so the lid can be kept on the main pot. Another alternative when it is in a metal pot and inconvenient to get the lid on and off a dozen time in a session, use a plastic bag which is kept over the glue pot between getting the glue out. This also helps to stop it going solid in the pot after a few sessions.
 
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